This question came up recently in .Net list. In many typical web applications, some requests may take some time to process. In this case, the user can ask the application to generate an Excel report which takes 5-10 minutes to process. Dealing this with ordinary synchronous model gives a bad user experience. The user will be left unserved with a blank screen on his browser while the request is being processed. This poor responsiveness can be improved by processing this request asynchronously. But is it the best solution?
Asynchonous processing might aleviate the problem, but it has a fundamental flaw.
When we open a new thread to perform the request asynchronously, this thread is occupied for as long as the request is being processed. So if we configure 25 maximum threads in the pool, now we can only serve 24 incoming requests. And when we eventually have 25 users requesting for Excel reports, we’re back with an unresponsive system. The application ceases to serve any user at all. Yes, worse than our synchronous counterpart, it’s unresponsive not only to the very few who actually request for Excel reports, but also to all ordinary users who only access simple pages.
A better solution? Depending on the size of the operation, if it takes more than few seconds, the best solution might be messaging. Typically, I would use messaging solution like NServiceBus or MassTransit.
Let’s take this into the way restaurants work. The staffs (threads) who take requests from the guests simply stick a piece of paper to the kitchen, ordering for a delicious “Excel-report” dinner, and then leave.
Behind the curtain, it’s then up to the chefs to push their arses around the kitchen and perform all necessary gymnastics to deliver the meal. The other staffs do not care. They just leave the paper then return to the front to serve the next customer. Meanwhile, the chefs can cook at their own pace. Even when the chefs are performing slow, they do not affect the performance of the wait-staffs who serves the customer.
In contrast, asynchronous processing (without messaging) is like having 25 generic staffs who serve as both roles: wait-staffs as well as chefs. Upon receving a meal order, 1 staff summons another staff to go to the kitcen and cook in the background, while the first staff stays in the front keeping the customers waited. However, after 25 requests, you’re running out of staffs. Everyone is busy cooking in the kitchen, and no one serves the customers, including those who are only requesting for menu and bills.